Year: 2022

Spark Optical Emission Spectrometer

Spark Optical Emission Spectrometer Chemical analysis and the identification of metals are used for a wide variety of purposes. These have become necessary to control the incoming goods or to ensure that the manufacturing process produces the product with the correct elemental composition. It is also used in failure investigation to determine if the correct …

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Research and development and the needed skills requirement

Research and development and the needed skills requirement Innovation depends on people who are able to generate and apply knowledge and ideas in the workplace. Research is motivated by curiosity or a need to know about how things are, and what people do or can do. In an era of global competitiveness, industrial ‘research and …

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Ladle slag and its role in secondary steelmaking

Ladle slag and its role in secondary steelmaking Presently the production of liquid steel takes place in two stages. The first stage involves getting a semi-product in primary steel making process furnace such as converter, electric arc furnace or induction furnace, whereas the second stage consists in refining of steel in the secondary steelmaking process …

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Magnesia Chrome Refractories

Magnesia Chrome Refractories Magnesia chrome refractories are basic refractories. These refractories are based on dead burned magnesite or magnesia in combination with chrome containing materials such as chrome ore (chromite). Major constituents of these refractories are magnesium oxide (MgO) and chromium oxide (Cr2O3). Basic refractories containing chrome continue to be an important group of materials …

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Employee Relations

Employee Relations Employees are among the most important resources of the organization. They are the most valuable assets. The nature and quantity of work performed by them have a direct impact on the productivity of the organization. Hence, a healthy employee relations in the organization is a pre-requisite for the organization for achieving growth and …

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Cooling of Strip on Run out Table in a Hot Strip Mill

Cooling of Strip on Run out Table in a Hot Strip Mill Hot strip mill is used to produce hot rolled coils of prescribed strip thickness and properties from a slab of known dimensions and chemical composition. Typically, a present day hot strip mill is located after continuous casting facility and consists of reheating furnaces, …

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Magnesia Refractories

Magnesia Refractories A magnesia refractory is defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as ‘a dead-burned refractory material consisting predominantly of crystalline magnesium oxide’. In addition, ASTM defines ‘dead-burned’ as “the state of a basic refractory material resulting from a heat treatment that yields a product resistant to atmospheric hydration or recombination …

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Selling and Marketing Management

Selling and Marketing Management Selling and marketing are two distinguishable separate functions of the organization which have a close relationship. Both the terms connect the organization to its customers through the product and services of the organization and both are necessary parts for the marketing activities of the organization. Every organization has the goal to …

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Electric Arc Furnace Cooling System

Electric Arc Furnace Cooling System The history of electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking is not very old. It is only slightly more than a century when the first furnace was commissioned to melt steel by utilizing electric power. The initial development of the technology took place, since these furnaces made it possible to easily achieve …

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Magnesia-Carbon Refractories

Magnesia-Carbon Refractories There is some confusion which can arise from the term magnesia (MgO) refractory. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) defines magnesia as ‘a dead-burned refractory material consisting predominantly of crystalline magnesium oxide’, but that is not the terminology used at every place. The terms magnesite, magnesia and MgO are sometimes used inter-changeably …

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