Organizational Policies and Procedures
Organizational Policies and Procedures
Organizations are described as a form of association, wherein men, material, and other resources are engaged for the purpose of accomplishing a desired objective. The term organization is derived from the word ‘organicism’, which means an organized body of interdependent parts sharing common activity. Organization has been defined in different ways such as (i) organization is a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons, (ii) organization is a planned system of cooperative effort in which each participant has a recognized role to play and duties and tasks to perform, (iii) organization is a formal structure of authority, through which work sub-divisions are arranged, defined, and coordinated for the defined objective, (iv) organization is concerned with the pattern of relationships between persons in an enterprise, so constructed as to fulfill the enterpriser’s function, and (v) organization consists of the relationship of individual to individuals and of group to groups, which are so related to bring about an orderly division of labour.
From the above definitions, it can be seen that the organizations are perceived in four different ways namely (i) as a process, as a structure of relationship, (iii) as a group of persons, and (iv) as a system. The characteristic features of organization give an indication of the basic nature of the organization. The characteristics of the organization are (i) they are purposeful, complex human collectivities, (ii) they are characterized by secondary (or impersonal) relationships, (iii) they have specialized and limited goals, (iii) they are characterized by sustained co-operative activity, (iv) they are integrated within a larger social system, (v) they provide services and products to their environment, and (vii) they are dependent upon exchanges within their environment.
The principles on which the organization operates are (i) principle of objective which means that the organization serves as a tool in attaining their prescribed objectives, (ii) principle of specialization which means that the division of work between the employees is to be based on their ability, capability, tasks, knowledge, and interest, (iii) scalar principle also known as ‘chain of command’ which means that there is to be clear lines of authority running from the top to the bottom of the organization, (iv) principle of authority which is the element of organizational structure by which the management is able to create an environment for individual performance, (v) principle of unity of command which demonstrates that in the organization, one subordinate is under the supervision of one person only hence avoiding the possibility of conflicts in instructions and developing the feeling of personal responsibility for the work, (vi) span of control or span of management or span of supervision or levels of organization which states about the number of subordinates that a person can manage or control, (vii) principle of definition which means the contents of every position consisting of duties, responsibilities, authorities, and organizational relationship are to be clearly defined, (viii) principle of the unity of direction which means that the organizational objectives are to be split into functional activities and there is to be one objective and one plan for each group of people, (ix) supremacy of the organizational objectives which means that the organizational goals and objectives are to be given wide publicity within the organization and the people contributing to it are to be made to understand that organizational objectives are more valuable and significant and an individual is to place one’s personal motives under it, (x) principle of balance which means that in the organizational structure there is need for balance for effective grouping and assigning activities, (xi) principle of human resources which means that the success or failure of the organization largely depends on the handling of its human resource, and (xii) principle of discipline which means maintenance of proper discipline in the organization. The principles described above acts as a yardstick to evaluate the soundness of the organizational activities and are necessary for the organizational successful functioning.
Organizations need to develop policies and procedures which reflect their vision, values, and culture as well as the needs of their employees. The organizational vision, mission, and values serve as the key for the development of the organizational policies and procedures. The policies and procedures are developed to assist the organizational management in the managing of its various activities. It includes activities related to administration, human resource, finance and accounts, procurement and sales, and marketing management. Creation, maintenance, communication, and training of the organizational policies and procedures need a considerable effort. Written policies and procedures are necessary for the effective and efficient operations of the organization. Fig 1 shows the contents of policies and procedures.
Fig 1 Contents of policies and procedures
The organizational policy is a statement of principles, rules, and guidelines which the organization follows in order to achieve a desired outcome. The policy is a set of general guidelines which outline the organization’s plan for tackling an issue. It exists to communicate the organizational point of view to its employees and to ensure that actions carried out at the organization take place within the defined boundaries of the policies and procedure. Policies and procedures communicate the connection between the organization’s vision and values and its day-to-day operations.
A procedure explains a specific action plan for carrying out a policy. It is a set of actions which an employee takes to complete an activity within the confines of an organizational policy. It exists as a reference for employees to understand their roles and responsibilities. Procedures tell employees how to deal with a situation and when. Using policies and procedures together gives employees a well-rounded view of the organization.
All policies and procedures written by the organization are combined into one document called a policy and procedure (P&P) manual. Maintenance of the P&P manual which is the act of writing or revising documents within it, is an ongoing effort. It is known as maintenance cycle. Combining all current policies and procedures into a P&P manual creates a centralized location for the employees to easily access of the policies and procedures pertinent to their role within the organization. Further, implementation of policy and procedure maintenance helps to ensure that policies and procedures are current and are easily accessible. It can also support the successful integration of policies and procedures requirements throughout an organization. Maintenance cycle of policies and procedures is shown in Fig 2.
Fig 2 Maintenance cycle of policies and procedures
The P&P manual is composed of two distinct sections. The policies section refers to the rules and regulations while the procedures section includes guidance for carrying out of certain important activities in the organization. Procedures are to include outline of the formats in which the information is to be presented. Simple language and detailed structure make it easy for employees to find the information which they are looking for in the P&P manual. Clear, plain language also prevents mis-interpretation of information and ensures everyone is on the same page. The P&P manual is not to be confusing to the reader. The manual is to be written in a positive tone. The purpose is to provide a pleasant working environment and produce a cohesive identity of the organization.
The purpose of the policies and procedures is to provide employees of the organization with general information regarding the policies and procedures of the organization. Policies are high-level, broad statements of what the organization wants to accomplish. They are made by management when laying out the organization’s position on some issue. Procedures are step-by-step instructions on how to implement policies in the organization. They describe exactly how employees are expected to act in a given situation or how to accomplish a specific task.
The effectiveness of an organization depends upon the framing of the suitable policies and procedures which help in meeting the goals and objectives of the organization in the changing environment. A sound policy of an organization, reflect on the goals, objectives, vision, and values of the organization keeping into consideration the available resources and man power. Further, a sound policy reflects crucial issues of the organization, such as organizational values, and expectations of the people etc. Organizational policies are statements of principles and procedures dealing with the management and administration of the organization. To put it in simple term, policies are a statement of purpose, which highlights broad guidelines, on action to be taken to achieve the purpose of the organization. Policies act as a guiding frame of reference, in dealing with various issues, such as how the organization deals with everything, right from its day-to-day operational issues, or how to respond to the needs to comply with legislation, and codes of practice. It is important that policies are simple and reasonable, and that employees are aware and clearly understand what the policy is trying to achieve.
Wording is crucial for those policies and procedures which relates to the employees. The policies are to be made in general terms and by avoiding such words as ‘guarantee’ when referring to the strong actions. The organization is to avoid determining certainty with regards to how it reacts to these situations.
While organizational policies are roadmaps to action, organizational procedures are the actions itself, which are undertaken by the organization in meeting the goals and objectives of organization. In other words, organizational procedures are a clear step by step method for implementing organizational policies or responsibilities. They describe logical sequence of activities or processes which are to be followed to complete a task or function in a correct and consistent manner. Hence, the policies of the organization are a vital component of the organization. If the policies and procedures of the organization are effective, it is more likely that the organization achieve success. Hence, success of the organization highly depends upon the organizational policies and procedures adopted by the organization. The more organized, systematic, and thorough the policies and procedures are, the less scope for misunderstandings in the organization, with maximization of the outcome.
Policies and procedures are the backbone of an organization. They are a dynamic body of shared standards used to strengthen and support the success of the organization. Having the necessary policies and procedures in place, as well as a system to manage compliance with those policies and procedures, help the management accomplish the organizational strategic vision while protecting its people, reputation, and bottom line. Fig 3 shows the management of the policies and procedures.
Fig 3 Management of the policies and procedures
Since the environment itself is constantly changing, the policies, and procedures are to be living documents which are to be periodically evaluated and changed as necessary. The constant monitoring of the organizational environment and the periodic review of the relevant parts of the policies and procedures are part of the process which is the operational model.
The policies and procedures which are developed are required to be appropriate to the organization and are to be clearly communicated to everyone from top to bottom in the organization. Clear communication is the first step in creating good internal controls and outlining the expectations of all individuals involved in the operations. Creation of written policies and procedures is not the end. In fact, policies and procedures are to be distributed to the appropriate employees. The organization also is to have an implementation plan to train the employees on all the policies and the procedures and to conduct periodic assessments for ensuring that they are being followed.
Organizational policies and procedures are important for the organization since they act as a frame of reference for the organization, its management, and its employees, so that they are able to focus on what has to be done, without getting diverted. Since a policy act as a reference point for diverse issues, people in the organization, do not have to discuss and re-discuss the same set of issues, every time they occur.
The key areas of the organizational policies and procedures which need attention of the organization, either in the present environment or in the future, are to be covered in the organizational policies. Policies just give broad guidelines on the key subject or situation and shows the roadmap on what is to be done and how is to be done. Some of the key areas, covered in a policy are (i) overview of the organisation where the key aspects to be covered include, history of the organization, vision, mission, goals and objectives of the organization, and organizational philosophy etc. (ii) organizational structures where components covered include, information on organizational chart / diagram, accountability chart, organization meetings and processes, (iii) organizational standards, rights and responsibilities which constitute an important component of the organization since it covers aspects like organizational code of conduct, rights and responsibilities of the management and the employees, policy on the conflict of interest, complaints and disputes procedures etc., (iv) human resource procedures which include details on recruitment, compensation, training, leave arrangements, promotions, and supervision etc. (v) organizational evaluation which includes evaluation strategies, ongoing monitoring, methods of performance assessment etc., (vi) human resource management and development policy is required to have details of employee reporting procedures and formats, employee supervision and performance development, performance appraisals, dispute and grievance procedure etc. (vii) organizational health, safety and welfare policy is required to cover information on procedures for health and safety, and fire control etc., and (viii) other components such as communications, delegations, critical incidents procedure in the organization, and if any, referral, coordination / networking with external partner organization, etc.
Well formulated organizational policies and procedures have several benefits both for the organization and its employees. These policies and procedures indicate that the organization (i) is consistent with the organizational values, (ii) follows regulations, (iii) operates in an efficient and business-like manner, (iv) ensures uniformity and consistency in decision-making and operational procedures (v) save time when an issue is to be handled, (vi) provides stability and continuity, (vii) maintains the direction of the organization even during periods of change, (viii) provides the framework for business planning, (ix) assists in assessing performance and establishing the accountability, and (x) clarifies functions and responsibilities.
There are several steps which are necessary for ensuring that the organizational policies and procedures are successfully developed, introduced, and implemented in the organization. The first step is planning and consultation which means that the employees are involved in the development, introduction, and implementation of the policies and procedures. Such consultation with the employees helps in improving the awareness and understanding of the employees and gives them a sense of ownership and compliance. Employee involvement also helps to determine, when, and where the policies and procedures can apply and include possible scenarios.
The second step is to study the various aspects to identify different areas for which policies and procedures are required to be developed. Serious inputs from the study are necessary if good and effective policies and procedures are to be made. The key terms used in the policy are to be defined, so that employees are able to understand what they mean. The policies and procedures are to explain both the acceptable and unacceptable behaviour of the organization. Further, the organization is to be clear about who the policy applies to.
The third step in developing the policies and procedures is to draft them in a simple language, so that they are easily understood by all the employees. The idea is that readers can glance at the P&P manual and quickly grasp the concepts being presented to them. The organization is required to ensure that all the employees understand what the policies and procedures mean. Further, the ways to comply with the policies and procedures and the implications of not complying are to be made clear to them. The draft policies and procedures are to be circulated amongst the key employees and based on the feedback, policies and procedures are reviewed and revised, finalized, and issued.
The fourth step is the implementation. To be effective, policies and procedures need to be publicized and provided to all the existing and new employees. The policies and procedures can be explained to employees through information and training sessions, at the employees’ meetings, and during induction. Policies and procedures are also be to reiterated and discussed regularly to ensure they remain relevant. Also, copies of policies and procedures are to be made easily accessible.
The fifth step is compliance. It is important that policies and procedures apply consistently throughout the organization. A breach is to be dealt with promptly and according to the procedures set out in the policy. The consequence of the breach is also to suit the severity of the breach i.e., whether it is to be a warning, disciplinary action or summary dismissal. A termination / disciplinary policy is to be made for the cases which the organization considers to be serious, willful or gross misconduct, for example a breach of a confidentiality policy.
The sixth and last step is to review the policies and procedures regularly for ensuring that they are relevant and are in line with changes within the organization. Where policies are considerably changed, they are to be re-issued to the employees, so that they understand the organizational new directions. Further, policies and procedures are to be periodically reviewed in order to ensure that they reflect current good practices and statutory requirements within the organization.
Beyond writing of the policies and procedures, the organization is required to take additional steps to ensure that the guidance reflected in the documents are effectively implemented throughout the organization. Additionally, the outdated policies and procedures are to be and archived in a timely fashion to ensure employees have ready access to outdated documents in the event of a statutory or regulatory or legal inquiry. All these activities are part of the maintenance of the policies and procedures.
Policies and procedures are to be reviewed (i) when there is a change within the statutory requirements, e.g., any new regulations, (ii) regularly as part of the frequent review, (iii) as new information on good practice emerges, (iv) when one in the organization notice that a policy or a procedure contradicts a statutory regulation or ethical direction in the organization. Hence, developing a policy is not a simple task, since it is not just a written statement. It has to be comprehensive enough, so that it includes all the crucial issues of an organization and is to be simple enough, so that it can be interpreted correctly by the employees of the organization.
For the policies and procedures to be most effective, people need to put time and effort into preparing them. One can take the help of several sample manuals and edit them to suit the environment in which the organization is functioning. The policies and procedures are not to radically change the practices followed in the industry.
Policy management consists of the practices associated with managing the organizational policies and procedures throughout all of the stages of the policy life cycle including drafting, editing, approving, updating, distributing, gaining employee attestation and maintaining a database of records. Modern policy and procedure management takes into account the critical role which policies and procedures play in protecting the organization. Effective policy management which calls for strong, well-managed policies and procedures integrated across the enterprise, sets standards for conduct which result in improved performance and enhanced organizational culture.
A well written, up-to-date P&P manual guides managers and supervisors in making decisions, as well as training and handling employment issues which relate to safety and health. A P&P manual also offers other less obvious benefits. The P&P manual serves as a basic communications tool. The very process of compiling the P&P manual includes a survey of executives’ and employees’ views on each subject or policy area. This process provides the management with an opportunity to find out where their senior management team stands and how it feels about certain issues. The management team also learn what steps are necessary for the organization to take, what areas are causing problems for the organization, and where confusion and mis-understandings lie. In other words, the ‘policies and procedures’ formulation process is perhaps the best opportunity which the management has to communicate with its team on subjects of mutual interest. In return, the team gets a chance to find out exactly where the management stands on these issues.
The important thing to remember about P&P manual, however, is that communication does not stop once the manual is completed. On the contrary, in the manual preparation process, the real communication begins. Every single time a question concerning a policy arises, the manager in charge has an opportunity to improve communication and understanding with the employee(s) involved.
The P&P manual is also a training resource. The manual can be used both in training newly recruited or promoted employees and in conducting refresher courses for experienced line managers. Some organizations have actually structured their line managers’ training programmes to correspond with the manual’s table of contents. One can develop and use case studies to illustrate problems. Case studies can be particularly useful when discussing employment related safety issues. The manual can serve as a guide in deciding the right way to handle these hypothetical situations.
The P&P manual serves as written documentation of the organization’s commitment to its employees’ efficient working. Simply having policies and procedures on different areas or right-to-know does not mean that the organization is in complete compliance with the statutory regulations. However, having policies can be helpful, if the employee files a complaint and a statutory inspector comes to inspect the plant operations. If one can show the statutory inspector that the organization have clearly stated and widely publicized policies and procedures in the area under complaint, then the inspector has a positively view for the organization. It can also help to reduce the punishment in case the inspector finds violations.
The P&P manual saves time. The management team does not waste hours coming up with decisions which others have made before. The team does not have to struggle with how to handle a ‘delicate’ issue or situation. The team does not have to wonder if management approves their actions. If the policies and procedures are well written, the management team has all the information and support they need to carry out the management’s objectives. These and other reasons make it desirable to have a exhaustive P&P manual which covers all the aspects of the organizational operations. In addition, there are other reasons which make such a manual all but mandatory if the employees are to fulfill their obligations to serve the organization and to preserve all its resources i.e., human, material, and monetary.
The regulatory requirements which the statutory authorities impose frequently change. Without current, documented policies and procedures, management team is likely to make some mistakes in their work area which can lead to costly losses. Another reason for developing a P&P manual is the increasing difficulty of managing and controlling complex operations. For example, in some organizations, managers of relatively small departments frequently make decisions which can affect the entire organization. It does not possible or even desirable to control all management decisions under circumstances like these. It is, however, desirable to provide managers with a framework within which they can make their own decisions on important or sensitive issues in a fair and consistent manner.
Another important reason for having a P&P manual is the requirement in some regulations / standards for organizations to provide information to their employees. Employees in particular are becoming more outspoken about their desire to know what regulatory agencies require from the organizational management. They are most likely to bring their concerns to their immediate line managers or department heads. It is, hence, essential that these managers have a resource to which they can turn to provide the requested information. A P&P manual is more than an item which the management desires to have. It is something which the management has to preserve for managing the organization and the employees, for attracting and retaining satisfied employees, and for reaching the organizational objectives through logical and consistent management decision-making.
There are a number of factors which are to be taken into consideration when developing and implementing policies and procedures in the workplace. The development stage of policies and procedures is an opportunity to think about and / or discuss a number of factors related to policy and procedure implementation and the impact this is going to have on the organization operations. Development of the policies and procedures is to be tailored to respond to the organizational culture, operational requirements, and available human and financial resources.
When implementing policies and procedures, there are a number of considerations which include (i) visible support for the policies and procedures are to be evident from the top management, (ii) core values which include a statement regarding health and safety in the workplace are to be identified, iii) all employees are to be concerned with developing a healthy work culture in the workplace, (iv) all managers are to be aware of their duties and responsibilities with respect to statutory regulations and the related organizational policy / procedure, (v) employees responsible for advice, policy adjudication and / or complaint resolution are to receive specialized training, (vi) plain language is to be used for policy implementation information, (vii) all employees are required to have a copy of the policy / procedure or to know where to access it for review, (viii) employees are to sign off that they have received and reviewed the policy and agree to be bound by it; (ix) the number of paper copies of the policies and procedures is to be reduced / limited to avoid outdated material from remaining in circulation, (x) the policies and procedures are to be communicated and promoted effectively and consistently, (xi) the policies and procedures are to be discussed at employee meetings, department meetings, and other meetings as applicable, (xii) the policies and procedures are to be discussed in various committees, (xiii) all employees are to be informed when the policies and procedures are up-dated to ensure that they understand the revisions, have an opportunity for questions and answers, sign off by acknowledging receipt, and agree to be bound by the revised policies and procedures, (xiv) the collective agreement and any revisions are to be provided to all the employees, (xv) the organization is to plan to evaluate and measure the policies and procedures at regular intervals for reviewing the level of use, effectiveness, absenteeism rates, accessibility, privacy and confidentiality, perceptions and trust etc., (xvi) the organizational financial bottom line is to be considered in combination with the human costs involved since successful and supportive organizations understand the needs of the employee and the management and how these can best be addressed for the benefit of all concerned and (xvii) the organization is to ensure respect and dignity at the workplace in order to make it a safe environment for employees to come forward to ask any questions they can have.
At this point, writing of the P&P manual probably seems like a massive and discouraging task. Hence, it is necessary to create a working schedule for the writing with setting aside a certain amount of time each day to work on the P&P manual. Breaking the work into smaller units prevent it from being overwhelming. Having a production schedule is helpful to maintain a balanced workflow. Management can also elect to assign the writing duties to someone else, or divide sections among employees. However, it is important that the writing style for the P&P manual remain consistent throughout. Since manual is to be composed in simple language, this is to be relatively easy to maintain even if the management uses several writers. Editing for consistency is necessary if several writers are employed for writing the manual.
Regardless of who composes the P&P manual, management is required to establish a review process to ensure that it complies with statutory regulations and accurately describes wall the procedures. The review process is also extremely important to check for phrases such as ‘with cause’ which can limit the of the management. Using the wrong phrases can turn the P&P manual into a contract in the eyes of the statutory authorities. The review process is also to include testing of procedures described in the manual to ensure they are thoroughly described. Since the P&P manual can be relied upon by the employees to complete tasks in emergency situations, instructions are required to include all steps in the procedure no matter how small they are, so that the procedure can be duplicated without training if necessary.
Advantages of policies and procedures are that they (i) ensure consistency, effectiveness, and efficiency during the accomplishment of the tasks, (ii) entails a consistent, repetitive series of processes towards achieving a particular task, (iii) presents activities in a particular sequence without opportunities for deviation from the path, (iv) are flexible as time and new developments also inform the need to change outdated processes and improve them, and (v) are performance tools as they incorporate measures to communicate the effectiveness of the procedure so that the user can tell whether or not the procedure is working (process descriptions, documentation, and monitoring controls).
Disadvantages of policies and procedures include (i) informal and unstructured work processes or activities pose a great challenge to the procedural applications which cause the implementation of work procedures at any given time a challenge, and ii) procedures are very detailed and some activities require complex technical applications and because of it they tend to be relegated to problem solving rather than used proactively within the organization.
Policies and procedures help in compliance, and efficiency within the organizations. In case of compliance, policies and procedures when appropriately designed, act both as a tool to ensure compliance with internal and external requirements and as an instrument to be complied within itself. In case of efficiency, policies and procedures when designed properly act as a tool to ensure that time, resources, and efforts are effectively managed in accomplishing a particular task. Critically, from the above arguments on compliance and efficiency, one can argue that compliance and efficiency have different roots and serve different purposes.
Writing policies and procedures is not normally something which excites or motivates people, but they feel differently if they realize the value policies and procedures bring in to the organization. If management want to increase communication, become more efficient, and gain credibility among external stakeholders, development of the policies and procedures is to be a priority. Everyone in the organization can benefit from clarity and consistency, since policies and procedures can help the organization to accomplish its goals and work together more effectively.
Ten main reasons for making and implementing policies and procedures in the organization are (i) they establish a standard for how to do things, (ii) they make sure decisions are made and documented by the management, (iii) they communicate the same message to all the employees, (iv) they provide clear expectations to make it more likely that all the employees meet or exceed the expectations, (v) they can attract people seeking jobs to the organization, (vi) they make sure important information on how to do things is not lost when an employee leaves the organization, (vii) they promote fair and equitable treatment of others, (viii) they show everyone in the organization have complied with applicable regulations, (ix) they reduce conflict, and (x) they help the organization to mitigate risks.
The organization can have already several documents in place which can help in putting together to create a P&P manual. There are also several resources and tools available to help the organization to get started. Checking back through meeting minutes is one of the best ways to gather information. Any other checklists or annual event planning documents can also be helpful. On-line resources or similar policies can be found which can provide useful information. P&P manual is to be made which is easy to use. The P&P manual is required to be user-friendly, relevant, and a practical tool which employees refer regularly. The manual is to include only those information or procedures which is useful to the organization. Whatever is included in the manual is to be relevant to the work being done in the organization.
It is important to make sure all policies and procedures follow relevant statutory regulations applicable for the industry. Other things to keep in mind during the making of the policies and procedures are (i) to start with what the organization already has in place and to remember that the P&P manual is to be continually updated and revised, (ii) when things can be better explained with a figure, the same is to be used, (iii) to use a style which suits the organization and keeping the manual easy to use, (iv) to be creative while preparing the manual, (v) to keep the manual simple without the use of jargon or over-explaining things, (vi) to organize the manual in a manner so that it is easy to navigate so that an employee find the information quickly, (vii) the manual is to be approved by the management before it is issued to the employees, (viii) to make sure that the P&P manual is used, and (ix) to schedule regular reviews of the manual to make sure it remains current. Preparing and using a P&P manual has several benefits for the organization. The content helps everyone in the organization understand clearly what they need to do, and how to do it.
Policy deployment frequently referred to as Hoshin Kanri was first used in Japan to communicate the organizational goals, policies, and objectives throughout the organizational hierarchy with the aim of drawing focus to the key activities which lead to success. Policy deployment is an application of Deming’s Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle to the management process which represents a generic approach to continual improvement of activities and processes. The concept is explained as ‘deploy and share’ direction, goals, and approaches of the management from top management to employees and for each unit of the organization to conduct work according to the plan, then evaluate, investigate and feedback the results or go through the PDCA process cycle continuously and attempt to incessantly improve performance of the organization.
Policy deployment boasts of strengths such as (i) organizational cohesion providing consensus of organizational objectives at all levels, (ii) integration of organizational efforts into actions so as to meet organizational objectives, and (iii) encouraging of inter-departmental cooperation which creates alignment through participation, responsive and flexible planning and implementation, identification of key problem areas, and enabling prioritization within the organization. Policy deployment helps create cohesiveness within the organization which is understood throughout the organization. It provides a structure with which to identify clear organizational goals.