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Magnesia Refractories

Magnesia Refractories A magnesia refractory is defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as ‘a dead-burned refractory material consisting predominantly of crystalline magnesium oxide’. In addition, ASTM defines ‘dead-burned’ as “the state of a basic refractory material resulting from a heat treatment that yields a product resistant to atmospheric hydration or recombination …

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Selling and Marketing Management

Selling and Marketing Management Selling and marketing are two distinguishable separate functions of the organization which have a close relationship. Both the terms connect the organization to its customers through the product and services of the organization and both are necessary parts for the marketing activities of the organization. Every organization has the goal to …

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Electric Arc Furnace Cooling System

Electric Arc Furnace Cooling System The history of electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking is not very old. It is only slightly more than a century when the first furnace was commissioned to melt steel by utilizing electric power. The initial development of the technology took place, since these furnaces made it possible to easily achieve …

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Magnesia-Carbon Refractories

Magnesia-Carbon Refractories There is some confusion which can arise from the term magnesia (MgO) refractory. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) defines magnesia as ‘a dead-burned refractory material consisting predominantly of crystalline magnesium oxide’, but that is not the terminology used at every place. The terms magnesite, magnesia and MgO are sometimes used inter-changeably …

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Leadership and Management Skills

Leadership and Management Skills Managers and leaders are two very different types of people. The difference between managers and leaders lies in the conceptions they hold, deep in their psyches, of chaos and order. Managers want to impose control, provide stability and to solve problems. They instinctively try to resolve problems quickly, sometimes before they …

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Steelmaking in Electric Arc Furnace

Steelmaking in Electric Arc Furnace Though De Laval had patented an electric furnace for the melting and the refining iron in 1892 and Heroult had demonstrated electric arc melting of ferro-alloys between 1888 and 1892, the first industrial electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking process only came into operation in 1900. Development was rapid and there …

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Use of Steel in the Generation of Solar and Wind Power

Use of Steel in the Generation of Solar and Wind Power At present energy transition is taking place around the world. Renewable energy is at the centre of the transition for a less carbon-intensive society. Strategic moves and heavy investments are being made in the field of renewal energy. Renewable energies include solar, wind, geothermal, …

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Organizational Role Stress and its Impact on Performance

Organizational Role Stress and its Impact on Performance Stress is a complex and dynamic concept. Because of its complex nature there is no agreement on a single definition of stress. Stress is broader in term and to define stress is very difficult. The concept of stress originally derives from the field of psychology. However, it …

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Important aspects of design of Blast Furnace and associated ancillary equipments

Important aspects of design of Blast Furnace and associated ancillary equipments The design of the blast furnace (BF) proper and its associated and ancillary equipments (Fig 1) immediately upstream and downstream of the furnace is important for the efficient running of the BF. Besides the furnace proper, the immediate associated equipments include (i) the stock …

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