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Grease and Grease Lubrication

Grease and Grease Lubrication  Grease is a semi solid lubricant. It is a mixture consisting of natural or synthetic oil base combined with thickeners and additives. It generally consists of a soap emulsified with mineral or vegetable oil.The National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) defines grease as ‘a solid to semi-solid product of dispersion of a thickening agent in a liquid lubricant. Additives imparting special …

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Lubrication and Lubricating Oils

Lubrication and Lubricating Oils The principle of supporting a sliding load on a friction reducing film is known as lubrication. The substance of which the film is composed is a lubricant, and to apply it is to lubricate. All liquids provide lubrication of a sort, but some do it a great deal better than others. …

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Straightening Machines in Flat Rolling Mills

Straightening Machines in Flat Rolling Mills Metal straightening or levelling process is used for straightening different type of steel materials like rounds, sections, pipes and flat products after their rolling. The rolled steel material gets deformed during cooling after rolling due to the residual stresses and often has the surface defects in cold condition such …

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Heat Treatment Processes for Steel

Heat Treatment Processes for Steel Steels can be heat treated to produce a large range of microstructures and properties. Generally, heat treatment uses phase transformation during heating and cooling to change the microstructure in a solid state. In heat treatment, the processing is normally thermal and which modifies only the structure of the steel. In …

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Steel for Armour

Steel for Armour Various materials especially metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites have been used in light vehicle defence technology. With each material appearing significant in respective applications, metals are mostly used for ballistic protection due to its mechanical properties. The most common metallic material being used in the armoured vehicles is steel. Steels which are …

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Vanadium in Steels

Vanadium in Steels Vanadium (V) is the 17th most commonly occurring element in the earths’ crust and finds wide use as an alloying element in steels. The atomic number of vanadium is 23 and its atomic weight is 50.94. It has a density of 6.11 gm/cc. Its melting point is 1910 deg C and boiling …

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Steel Pipes and Tubes

Steel Pipes and Tubes A steel pipe is a round tubular section or a hollow cylinder which is used mainly to convey fluids (liquids, and gases), and pneumatic conveying of solids. It can also be used for structural applications. Pipes are mainly used in the process industry. Pipe is generally manufactured to several long-standing and …

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Burners and Flames in Industrial Furnaces

Burners and Flames in Industrial Furnaces A burner is the device used to burn the fuel, with an oxidizer to convert the chemical energy in the fuel into thermal energy. A given combustion system can have a single burner or many burners, depending on the size and type of the application. Burners’ heat (thermal energy) …

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Rotary Kiln

Rotary Kiln  A rotary kiln is an inclined, rotating cylindrical reactor through which a charge moves continuously. The rotary kiln is a thermal processing furnace used for processing solid materials at extremely high temperatures in order to cause a chemical reaction or physical change. They are normally used to carry out processes such as (i) calcination, …

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Metallurgical Industrial Furnaces

Metallurgical Industrial Furnaces  An industrial furnace is essentially a thermal enclosure and is employed to process raw materials at high temperatures both in solid state and liquid state. The principle objectives of an industrial furnace are (i) to utilize heat efficiently so that losses are minimum, and (ii) to handle the different phases (solid, liquid …

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