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X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometer

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometer X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is used to detect and measure the concentration of elements in substances. Fluorescence is the phenomena of absorbing incoming radiation and reradiating it as lower-energy radiation. X-rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum with energies ranging from 0.1 keV to 100 keV (Fig 1a). X-rays are produced by …

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Spark Optical Emission Spectrometer

Spark Optical Emission Spectrometer Chemical analysis and the identification of metals are used for a wide variety of purposes. These have become necessary to control the incoming goods or to ensure that the manufacturing process produces the product with the correct elemental composition. It is also used in failure investigation to determine if the correct …

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Magnesia Chrome Refractories

Magnesia Chrome Refractories Magnesia chrome refractories are basic refractories. These refractories are based on dead burned magnesite or magnesia in combination with chrome containing materials such as chrome ore (chromite). Major constituents of these refractories are magnesium oxide (MgO) and chromium oxide (Cr2O3). Basic refractories containing chrome continue to be an important group of materials …

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Magnesia Refractories

Magnesia Refractories A magnesia refractory is defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as ‘a dead-burned refractory material consisting predominantly of crystalline magnesium oxide’. In addition, ASTM defines ‘dead-burned’ as “the state of a basic refractory material resulting from a heat treatment that yields a product resistant to atmospheric hydration or recombination …

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Magnesia-Carbon Refractories

Magnesia-Carbon Refractories There is some confusion which can arise from the term magnesia (MgO) refractory. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) defines magnesia as ‘a dead-burned refractory material consisting predominantly of crystalline magnesium oxide’, but that is not the terminology used at every place. The terms magnesite, magnesia and MgO are sometimes used inter-changeably …

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Use of Steel in the Generation of Solar and Wind Power

Use of Steel in the Generation of Solar and Wind Power At present energy transition is taking place around the world. Renewable energy is at the centre of the transition for a less carbon-intensive society. Strategic moves and heavy investments are being made in the field of renewal energy. Renewable energies include solar, wind, geothermal, …

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Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change

Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Gases which trap heat in the atmosphere are called greenhouse gases. Several chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as greenhouse gases. These gases allow sunlight (shortwave radiation) to freely pass through the atmosphere and heat the land and oceans. Greenhouse gases occur naturally and allow the life to survive on …

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Green Hydrogen

Green Hydrogen Hydrogen is the most abundant and lightest element in the universe with the atomic number 1 and an atomic weight of 1.008. It is a colourless gas. It was discovered by Henry Cavendish in 1766. The molecular form of hydrogen, which is of interest as an energy carrier, is the diatomic molecule composed …

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