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COR-TEN Steel

COR-TEN Steel  COR-TEN steel is trademark for weathering steel, and sometimes written without the hyphen as ‘CORTEN steel or even Corten steel’. It is a group of steel alloys which were developed to eliminate the need for painting, and form stable rust like appearance if exposed to the weather for several years. United States Steel …

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Industrial Flow Measurements

Industrial Flow Measurements Technological processes in the industry require measurements of flows for the purpose of the control of the processes. Optimum performance of some equipment and operations need specific flow rates. Hence, the accurate measurement of flow rates is very important in industrial applications. Flow measurements consist of measuring the flow rate of solids, …

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Industrial Pressure Measurement

Industrial Pressure Measurement A major portion of all industrial measurement relates in some way or other to pressure in its several forms. For example, flow is often measured by determining the pressure which exists at two different points in a system. In a Bourdon system, pressure changes are used to produce the mechanical motion of …

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Industrial Temperature Measurement

Industrial Temperature Measurement The term temperature supposedly originated from the Latin word ‘tempera’, which means ‘moderate or soften’.  Technological processes need accurately controlled temperatures. Physical parameters and chemical reactions are temperature dependent, and hence temperature control is of major importance. Temperature measurement in the present day industrial environment encompasses a wide variety of needs and …

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Control Valves and their Types

Control Valves and their Types A technological process has a large numbers of control loops which are networked together for the process to function effectively and efficiently. Each of these control loops is designed to keep some important process variable such as pressure, flow, level, and temperature etc. within a required operating range for ensuring …

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Measurement Standards

Measurement Standards The world around us, first of all, is the world of physical quantities existing in reality in the widest range of their values. This is why, the range of characteristics describing both natural phenomena and the behaviour of devices and instruments produced in this world, is very wide. Physical quantities are characteristics of …

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Instrumentation Diagrams

Instrumentation Diagrams Instrumentation diagrams are the descriptive diagrams made following standardized methods and rules. However, the scope of instrumentation is so wide that a single form of diagram is not sufficient to capture all what is required to be represented. The different types of instrumentation diagrams which are commonly used are (i) process flow diagram …

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Process Control Instruments and their Classification

Process Control Instruments and their Classification In the physical sciences, process engineering, and product quality assurance, measurement is the activity of obtaining and comparing physical quantities. Established standards are used as units, and the process of measurement gives a number relating the item under study and the referenced unit of measurement. Measurement generally involves using an …

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Hydraulic System and its Components

Hydraulic System and its Components A hydraulic system is one of the drive systems which are being used for the control of machinery and equipment. The other two commonly employed drive systems are based on pneumatics and electric power. The word ‘hydraulics’ came from the Greek word ‘hydraulikos’ which means water organ which in turn …

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Grease and Grease Lubrication

Grease and Grease Lubrication  Grease is a semi solid lubricant. It is a mixture consisting of natural or synthetic oil base combined with thickeners and additives. It generally consists of a soap emulsified with mineral or vegetable oil.The National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) defines grease as ‘a solid to semi-solid product of dispersion of a thickening agent in a liquid lubricant. Additives imparting special …

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