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Automation and Thickness Control in Hot Strip Mill

Automation and Thickness Control in Hot Strip Mill The economic efficiency of metal rolling processes is strongly correlated to the quality level of the end-rolled products. Rolling of flat steel products is a complex process where the quality of the product is influenced by a range of factors such as incoming material, mechanical and electrical …

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Shape and Gauge Control of Strip in a Cold Rolling Mill

Shape and Gauge Control of Strip in a Cold Rolling Mill The economic efficiency of metal rolling processes is strongly correlated to the quality level of the end-rolled products. The latest efforts to increase the quality of the end rolled products in rolling processes have been mainly focused on the large-scale application and use of …

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Analysis by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

Analysis by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry X-ray fluorescence (XRF), is an emission spectroscopic technique which has found wide application in the area of elemental identification and determination. The technique depends on the emission of characteristic x-radiation, normally in the 1 keV to 60 keV energy range, following excitation of atomic electron energy levels by an external …

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Metal Analysis by Optical Emission Spectroscopy

Metal Analysis by Optical Emission Spectroscopy Optical emission spectroscopic techniques originated in experiments performed in the mid 1800s, yet they remain some of the most useful and flexible means of performing elemental analysis. Free atoms emit light at a series of narrow wavelength intervals, when placed in an energetic environment. These intervals, termed emission lines, …

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Continuous Casting Mould

Continuous Casting Mould In the continuous casting process, liquid steel flows from a ladle, through a tundish into the mould. The mould is regarded as the heart of the continuous casting process and plays a very important role in the efficiency of the process and the strand quality.  It is in the mould that the …

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Annealing of Steels

Annealing of Steels When a metal is cold worked (deformed at room temperature), the microstructure becomes severely distorted because of an increased dislocation density resulting from the deformation. Cold working is also referred to as work hardening or strain hardening. As a metal is cold worked, the strength and hardness increase while ductility decreases. Eventually, …

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Forging of Carbon and Alloy Steels

Forging of Carbon and Alloy Steels Forging of carbon (C) and alloy steels constitutes a metal working process, which has the ability to form the material to the desired component shape, while refining the cast structure of the forging material, healing shrinkage voids, and improving the mechanical properties of the material. The amount of subsequent …

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Corrosion in Carbon Steels

Corrosion in Carbon Steels As per ISO 8044:2010, ‘corrosion is the physico-chemical interaction between a metal and its environment, which results in changes in the metal’s properties and which may lead to significant functional impairment of the metal, the environment, or the technical system of which they form a part’. Corrosion is seen when there …

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Production and Characteristics of High Strength Reinforcement Bars

Production and Characteristics of High Strength Reinforcement Bars During the last few decades, reinforced concrete construction has generally utilized reinforcement bars with yield strength of 415 MPa (415 N/sq mm) for most beams, girders, and columns, and less frequently reinforcement bars with yield strength of 500 MPa for columns which are not a part of …

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Important aspects regarding Rolling of Wire Rods

Important aspects regarding Rolling of Wire Rods Wire rods are the steel product normally of round cross section which is produced from hot rolling of steel billets. Wire rods are known for their long subsequent process­ing which they undergo in the secondary and tertiary processing units until the final end products are produced. Furthermore, the …

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