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Forging of Carbon and Alloy Steels

Forging of Carbon and Alloy Steels Forging of carbon (C) and alloy steels constitutes a metal working process, which has the ability to form the material to the desired component shape, while refining the cast structure of the forging material, healing shrinkage voids, and improving the mechanical properties of the material. The amount of subsequent …

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Corrosion in Carbon Steels

Corrosion in Carbon Steels As per ISO 8044:2010, ‘corrosion is the physico-chemical interaction between a metal and its environment, which results in changes in the metal’s properties and which may lead to significant functional impairment of the metal, the environment, or the technical system of which they form a part’. Corrosion is seen when there …

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Production and Characteristics of High Strength Reinforcement Bars

Production and Characteristics of High Strength Reinforcement Bars During the last few decades, reinforced concrete construction has generally utilized reinforcement bars with yield strength of 415 MPa (415 N/sq mm) for most beams, girders, and columns, and less frequently reinforcement bars with yield strength of 500 MPa for columns which are not a part of …

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Important aspects regarding Rolling of Wire Rods

Important aspects regarding Rolling of Wire Rods Wire rods are the steel product normally of round cross section which is produced from hot rolling of steel billets. Wire rods are known for their long subsequent process­ing which they undergo in the secondary and tertiary processing units until the final end products are produced. Furthermore, the …

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Consteel Electric Arc Furnace Process

Consteel Electric Arc Furnace Process Consteel process is a patented process. It is an innovative energy conservation technology for scrap pre-heating in an electric arc furnace (EAF) developed by ‘Intersteel Technology Inc., Charlotte, North Carolina (since 1994 a part of Techint, Tenova S.p.A.). The first industrial application of the Consteel technology took place in 1989, …

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Foaming of Slag in Electric Arc Furnace

Foaming of Slag in Electric Arc Furnace Slag foaming has become an important and critical practice for the modern electric arc furnace (EAF) since a good foaming slag contributes considerable efficiency and other benefits to the process.  The quality of the slag foaming is an important factor in the EAF steelmaking process since it ensures …

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Foaming of Slag in Basic Oxygen Furnace

Foaming of Slag in Basic Oxygen Furnace In basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking, a supersonic oxygen (O2) stream is injected onto the surface of the hot metal bath. The impurity elements in the bath such as carbon (C), silicon (Si), manganese (Mn), and phosphorus (P) are oxidized and removed from the bath in the form …

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Slopping of Slag in Basic Oxygen Furnace

Slopping of Slag in Basic Oxygen Furnace Steelmaking in basic oxygen furnace (BOF) is a batch process in which steel is made from liquid iron. The concentration of elements such as carbon (C), manganese (Mn), and phosphorous (P) have an impact on the steel quality. For the steel to be cast, it needs to be …

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Process Control of Technological Processes

Process Control of Technological Processes Technological processes consist of handling, working, refining, combining, and manipulating materials and fluids to profitably produce end products. These processes can be precise, demanding, and potentially hazardous processes. Small changes in a process can have a large impact on the end result. Variations in proportions, temperature, flow, turbulence, and many …

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Refractory Lining of the Electric Arc Furnace

Refractory Lining of the Electric Arc Furnace Refractories are those materials which withstand high temperature without a significant change in chemical or physical properties. Refractory materials are very important to the electric arc furnace (EAF) operation as they allow the containment of the liquid steel in the furnace hearth without damaging the furnace structure. The …

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