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Contribution of Steel to the Circular Economy

Contribution of Steel to the Circular Economy There are two types of economies which exist around the world. These are (i) linear economy, (ii) circular economy. A circular economy is an alternative to a traditional linear economy in which the resources are kept in use for as long as possible, extracting the maximum value from …

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Hydrogen Steelmaking

Hydrogen Steelmaking Iron and steel production industry is the single largest sector in terms of total global fossil and industrial emissions, making up around 7 % to 9 % of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, steel is the primary material component for modern industrial societies. Further increase in the consumption of steel …

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Carbon Neutral Steelmaking

Carbon Neutral Steelmaking Iron and steel production industry is the single largest sector in terms of total global fossil and industrial emissions, making up around 7 % to 9 % of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, steel is the primary material component for modern industrial societies. Further consumption of steel is going …

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Optical Microscopy

Optical Microscopy¬† Microscopy studies the enlargement of the image of the objects which are too small to be properly seen by the unaided eye. Microscopy fulfills its task by making use of the radiations (Fig 1) emitted, absorbed, transmitted, or reflected by the sample which is to be observed. The nature of the radiation specifies …

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Non destructive Testing Techniques

Non destructive Testing Techniques There can be inherent microscopic flaws in materials due to crystal lattice imperfections. Also, manufacturing processes such as welding, casting, forging, and surface treatment, etc. can cause further flaws or defects. Further, materials are used under various conditions of stress, fatigue, and corrosion, which can create additional defects or aggravate present …

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Shape Control Technologies in Hot Strip Mill

Shape Control Technologies in Hot Strip Mill The shape of a rolled strip is characterized by its transverse section profile (crown) and by its flatness. The accuracy of the strip shape is an important parameter which determines the quality of the hot rolled strip. Strip shape is an indispensable factor in determining the market competitiveness …

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Automation and Thickness Control in Hot Strip Mill

Automation and Thickness Control in Hot Strip Mill The economic efficiency of metal rolling processes is strongly correlated to the quality level of the end-rolled products. Rolling of flat steel products is a complex process where the quality of the product is influenced by a range of factors such as incoming material, mechanical and electrical …

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Shape and Gauge Control of Strip in a Cold Rolling Mill

Shape and Gauge Control of Strip in a Cold Rolling Mill The economic efficiency of metal rolling processes is strongly correlated to the quality level of the end-rolled products. The latest efforts to increase the quality of the end rolled products in rolling processes have been mainly focused on the large-scale application and use of …

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Analysis by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

Analysis by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry X-ray fluorescence (XRF), is an emission spectroscopic technique which has found wide application in the area of elemental identification and determination. The technique depends on the emission of characteristic x-radiation, normally in the 1 keV to 60 keV energy range, following excitation of atomic electron energy levels by an external …

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Metal Analysis by Optical Emission Spectroscopy

Metal Analysis by Optical Emission Spectroscopy Optical emission spectroscopic techniques originated in experiments performed in the mid 1800s, yet they remain some of the most useful and flexible means of performing elemental analysis. Free atoms emit light at a series of narrow wavelength intervals, when placed in an energetic environment. These intervals, termed emission lines, …

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