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Iron and Steel Scrap and its Recycling


Iron and Steel Scrap and its Recycling

Iron and steel scrap also known as ‘ferrous metal scrap’ is a recyclable material which is left- over during the production of iron and steel products and fabrication of ferrous materials or generated at end of life of the ferrous products. Ferrous scrap is normally recycled during steelmaking. Amongst all kinds of ferrous scraps, steel scrap constitutes the maximum percentage. Ferrous metal scrap is the primary raw material for the production of liquid steel in the electric arc furnace and the induction furnace.

Ferrous metal scrap comes from several different sources and hence it differs both with respect to its physical and chemical characteristics. The quality of scrap affects greatly the economics of the steelmaking process. The age of a scrap shipment can vary from one day to over 100 years old. The properties depend on from where the scrap comes from and when the steel was produced. Different grades of steel are produced for variety of applications. It therefore becomes essential that the scrap is segregated generally by composition and size or grade suitable for melting in the recycling process so that it gives the maximum economic benefit and is as effective as possible.

As mentioned above, the iron and steel scrap is essentially of three types (Fig 1) namely (i) internally generated scrap during the production of iron and steel and their products inside an integrated steel plant, (ii) new scrap, prompt, or industrial scrap which is generated during the processing of iron and steel products, such as forming of auto components, machining of tools and equipment parts, fabrication and production of structures and equipment made from iron and steel etc., and (iii) obsolete, old, or end of life cycle scrap consisting mainly of scrap generated from iron and steel containers, cans, automobile, appliances, and construction materials etc.

Fig 1 Types of iron and steel scrap

Internally generated scrap in an iron and steel plant is scrap generated during the manufacturing process rarely leaves the plant production area. Instead, it is returned to the steelmaking furnace and melted again. This scrap has known physical properties and chemical properties. Technological advancements have significantly reduced the generation of this type of scrap.

New scrap, prompt or industrial scrap is generated from manufacturing units which are involved in the fabricating and producing various products from steel material. Scrap is generated when steel is cut, stamped, drawn, extruded, or machined. This type of scrap is generally transported quickly back to steel plants for re-melting. The supply of new scrap is a function of industrial activity. When activity is high, more quantity of new scrap is generated. The chemical composition and physical characteristics of new scrap is well known and in principle new scrap does not need any pre-treatment process before it is re-melted, although cutting to size might be necessary. This scrap is typically clean, meaning that it is not mixed with other materials.

Obsolete, old, or end of life cycle scrap is the steel which has been discarded when steel products, (e.g. automobiles, appliances, machinery, buildings, bridges, ships, cans, rail track materials, railway coaches and wagons etc.), have served their useful life. Since this scrap is collected after a use cycle, either separately or mixed, it is often contaminated to a certain degree, depending highly on its origin and the collection process used. Since this type of scrap is the material which has been in use for years, chemical composition and physical characteristics are not normally well known. It is also often mixed with other trash material. Due to these reasons, old scrap is not easy to recycle. It requires cleaning, sorting, removal of coatings, and other preparation like pressing, crushing, shearing, shredding etc. prior to its use. Obsolete scrap can contain radiation source with associated environmental and health risks. These low intensity radioactive sources can trickle into scrap from wastes disposed by research laboratories, scientific gauges, industries, and hospitals etc.

Another way to classify scrap sources is according to the products in which the iron and steel material was used before it became a waste. The main iron and steel scrap sources in this sense are transport vehicles (e.g. automobiles, rails, ships and aero planes), iron and steel products for construction, machinery and mechanical equipment, electrical and electronic equipment, and packaging.

Specifications and standards

Specifications and standard classifications for ferrous metal scrap exist at all levels such as (i) International, (ii) European, (iii) Institute of scrap recycling industry (ISRI), (iii) national standards, as well as (iv) between individual parties. It is clear that for the reason of marketing and trading, standards and specifications are needed not only to set the price but also to be used as reference for classification and quality control. In many cases based on the production need, iron and steel scrap is processed according to the bilateral specifications agreed upon between the scrap users and scrap processor. Traded ferrous metal scrap is basically classified according to several properties, most notably (i) chemical composition, (ii) level of impurity elements, (iii) physical size and shape, and (iv) homogeneity, i.e. the variation within the given specification.

General conditions which are applicable to all grades for non-alloy carbon steel scrap as raw material for the steel melting shop are usually classified under four categories.

The first category is from environment, health and safety considerations. Under this category, all grades of scrap are to exclude (i) pressurized, closed or insufficiently open containers of all origins which can cause explosions. Containers are to be considered as insufficiently open where the opening is not visible or is less than 10 cm in any one direction, (ii) dangerous material, inflammable or explosive, fire-arms (whole or in part), munitions, dirt or pollutants which can contain or emit substances dangerous to human health or to the environment or to the steel production process, (iii) ferrous metal scrap is required to be checked, within the limitations of accessibility and in strict compliance with appropriate detection equipment for radioactivity for identifying material presenting radioactivity in excess of the ambient level of radioactivity and radioactive material in sealed containers even if no significant exterior radioactivity is detectable due to shielding or due to the position of the sealed source.

The second category is from steriles or cleanliness considerations. Under this category, all grades of scrap are to be free of all but negligible amounts of other non-ferrous metals and non-metallic materials, earth, insulation, excessive iron oxide in any form, except for nominal amounts of surface rust arising from outside storage of prepared scrap under normal atmospheric conditions. All grades of scrap are to be free of all but negligible amounts of combustible nonmetallic materials, including, but not limited to rubber, plastic, fabric, wood, oil, lubricants and other chemical or organic substances. The scrap is to be free of larger pieces (brick-size) which are non-conductors of electricity such as tyres, pipes filled with cement, wood or concrete. Further, the scrap is to be free of waste or of by-products arising from steel melting, heating, surface conditioning (including scarfing) grinding, sawing, welding and torch cutting operations, such as slag, mill scale, bag house dust, grinder dust, and sludge.

The third category is from the considerations of residuals and other metallic elements. These residuals and other metallic elements include copper (Cu), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and molybdenum (Mo).

All grades of scrap are to be free of visible metallic Cu which means free of Cu wound electric motors, sheets and copper coated materials, bearing shells, winding, and radiator cores. The scrap is to be free of all but negligible amounts of wire, insulated wire and cable tubing, and other copper, brass items mixed with, attached to, or coating ferrous scrap. Further, all grades of scrap are to be free of material with high dissolved Cu content such as rebars and merchant bars which are to be grouped in the high residual grades.

All grades of scrap are to be free of tin in any form such as tin cans, tin coated materials etc. as well as bronze elements such as rings, bearing shells etc.

All grades scrap are to be free of lead in any forms such as batteries, solder, wheel weights, terne plate, cable ends, bearings, bearing shells etc.

All grades are to be free of alloyed steels and stainless steels as well as of mechanical parts (which mainly contain these elements) such as motors, drive gears for trucks, axles, gear boxes, gear wheels, tools and dies as well as non-magnetic pieces. The levels indicated for certain of these metallic elements in the different grades are covered under scrap specifications and are normally the typical maximum contents. Supply of scrap not falling within the analytical limits of this list of grades is, nevertheless, permitted with specific prior agreement between the supplier and the user based on the knowledge of the real nature/content of the material in question.

The fourth category consists of mixture of different grades of scrap. Normally, no delivery is to contain a mixture of grades, unless there is joint agreement.

In short, as per the general conditions, the ferrous metal scrap is to exclude all type of gas cylinders (pressurized or depressurized), Freon canisters, auto/truck drive shafts, shock absorbers, struts, torque convertors, gear boxes, conveyor rollers, compressed gas cylinders, fire extinguishers, hydraulic cylinders, munitions, air compressor tanks, fuel tanks, and any other sealed or closed container. Other unacceptable materials in ferrous scrap include (i) no asbestos (typically in brake shoes, pipe insulation, etc.), (ii) no tyres or tie pieces of any type, (iii) no free flowing oil either on the surface or containerized, (iv) no units containing polychlorinated biphenyls, (v) no batteries of any type, (vi) no items containing Freon or any other types of refrigerants, (vii) no hazardous waste, (viii) no transformers, (ix) no flammable material, (x) no liquids of any type, (xi) no foreign material such as wood, insulation, concrete, dirt, plastic, etc., (xii) no electric motors, (xiii) no mercury containing scrap, including mercury contaminated automotive shredded scrap, and (xiv) no fracking pipe or munitions of any type.

The term free of alloyed steel means that any alloying elements contained in the steel are residual and have not been added for the purpose of making an alloy steel. Ferrous metal scrap is considered free of alloys when the residual alloying elements do not exceed a certain percentage such as Ni – 0.45 %, Mo – 0.10 %, Cr – 0.20 %, and Mn (manganese) – 1.65 %. The combined residuals other than Mn are not to exceed a total of 0.60 %.

The way the various types of ferrous metal scrap are defined is given below. These definitions are as per the guidelines of ISRI.

Number 1 heavy melting steel – It constitutes wrought iron and/or steel scrap with 6 mm and over in thickness. Individual pieces are not over 1500 mm x 700 mm (charging box size) prepared in a manner to insure compact charging.

Number 1 heavy melting steel of 900 mm x 450 mm size – It constitutes wrought iron and/or steel scrap with 6 mm and above in thickness. Individual pieces are not over 900 mm x 450 mm (charging box size) prepared in a manner to insure compact charging.

Number 1 heavy melting steel of 1500 mm x 450 mm size – It constitutes wrought iron and/or steel scrap with 6 mm and above in thickness. Individual pieces are not over 1500 mm x 450 mm (charging box size) prepared in a manner to insure compact charging.

Number 2 heavy melting steel – It constitutes wrought iron and steel scrap, black and galvanized, 3 mm and above in thickness, charging box size to include material not suitable as heavy melt­ing steel number 1. It is prepared in a manner to insure compact charging.

Number 2 heavy melting steel of size 900 mm x 450 mm size type 1– It constitutes wrought iron and steel scrap, black and galvanized, maximum size 900 mm x 450 mm. It can include all auto­mobile scrap properly prepared.

Number 2 heavy melting steel 900 mm x 450 mm size type 2 – It  constitutes wrought iron and steel scrap, black and galvanized, maximum size 900 mm x 450 mm. It can include automo­bile scrap, properly prepared. However, it is to be free of sheet iron or thin gauged material.

Number 2 heavy melting steel of size 1500 mm x 450 mm size – It constitutes wrought iron and steel scrap, black and galvanized, maximum of size 150 mm x 450 mm. It can include automo­bile scrap, properly prepared. However, it is to be free of sheet iron or thin gauged material.

Number 1 busheling – It constitutes clean steel scrap, maximum size 600 mm by 1500 mm and can include new factory busheling (for example, sheet clippings, stampings, etc.). It cannot include old auto body and fender stock. It is to be free of metal coated, limed, vitreous enameled and electrical sheet containing above 0.5 % Si (silicon).

New black sheet clippings – This scrap is meant for direct charging and has maximum size of 2400 mm by 450 mm. It is free of old automobile body and fender stock, metal coated, lined, vitreous enameled and electrical sheet containing above 0.5 % Si. It is needed to lie reasonably flat on a transport car.

Number 1 bundles – It constitutes new black steel sheet scrap, clippings or skeleton scrap, compressed or hand bundled, to charging box size, and weighing not less than 1.2 tons per cubic meters (t/cum). The hand bundles are tightly secured for handling with a magnet. It can include Stanley balls (hammers) or mandrel wound bundles or skeleton reels, tightly secured. It can include chemically detinned material. It cannot include old auto body or fender stock. It is free of metal coated, limed, vitreous enameled and electrical sheet containing above 0.5 % Si.

Number 2 bundles – It constitutes old black and galvanized steel sheet scrap, hydrauli­cally compressed to charging box size and weighing not less than 1.2 t/cum. It cannot include tin or lead-coated material or vitreous enam­eled material.

Shredded scrap – It constitutes homogeneous iron and steel scrap, magnetically separated, originating from automobiles, unpre­pared number 1 and number 2 steel, miscellaneous baling and sheet scrap. The average density of this shredded scrap is 0.8 t/cum.

Shredded scrap – It constitutes homogeneous iron and steel scrap magnetically sep­arated, originating from automobiles, unprepared number 1 and number 2 steel, miscellaneous baling and sheet scrap. The average density of this shredded scrap is 1.12 t/cum.

Shredded clippings – It constitutes shredded 1000 series C (carbon) steel clippings or sheets. Material is required to have an average density of 0.95 t/cum.

Steel can bundles – It constitutes steel can scrap compressed to charging box size and weighing not less than 1.2 t/cum. Cans can be baled without removal of paper labels, but free of other non-metallics. It can include upto 2.5 litres of tin coated containers.

Number 3 bundles – It constitutes old sheet steel, compressed to charging box size and weighing not less than 1.2 t/cum. It can include all coated ferrous scrap not suitable for inclusion in number 2 bundles.

Incinerator bundles – It constitutes tin can scrap, compressed to charging box size and weighing not less than 1.2 t/cum. It is processed through a recognized garbage incinera­tor.

Terne plate bundles – It constitutes new terne plate sheet scrap, clippings or skeleton scrap, compressed or hand bundled, to charging box size, and weighing not less than 1.2 t/cum. The hand bundles are tightly secured for handling with a magnet. It can include Stanley balls (hammers) or mandrel wound bundles or skeleton reels which are tightly secured.

Bundled number 1 steel – It constitutes wrought iron and/or steel scrap with 3 mm and above in thickness, compressed to charging box size and weighing not less than 1.2 t/cum. It is to be free of all metal-coated material.

Bundled number 2 steel – It constitutes wrought iron or steel scrap, black or galvanized, with 3 mm and above in thickness, compressed to charg­ing box size and weighing not less than 1.2 t/cum density. Auto body and fender stock, burnt or hand stripped, can constitute a maximum of 60 %. This percent is based on makeup of auto body, chassis, drive shafts, and bumpers. It is to be free of all coated material, except as found on auto­mobiles.

Machine shop turnings – It constitutes clean steel or wrought iron turnings, free of iron borings, nonferrous metals in a free-state, scale, or excessive oil. It cannot include badly rusted or cor­roded stock.

Machine shop turnings and iron borings – It is same as machine shop turnings but including iron borings.

Shoveling turnings – It constitutes clean short steel or wrought iron turnings, drillings, or screw cuttings. It can include any such material whether resulting from crushing, raking, or other processes. It is to be free of springy, bushy, tangled or matted material, lumps, iron borings, nonferrous metals in a free-state, grindings, or excessive oil.

Shoveling turnings and iron borings – It is same as shoveling turnings, but including iron bor­ings.

Iron borings – It constitutes clean cast iron or malleable iron borings and drill­ings. It is to be free of steel turnings, scale, lumps or excessive oil.

Auto slabs type 1– It constitutes clean automobile slabs, cut to a size of 900 mm x 450 mm and less.

Auto slabs type 2 – It constitutes clean automobile slabs, cut to a size of 600 mm x 450 mm and less.

Briquetted iron borings – The borings are to be as per analysis and density to meet user’s specifications.

Briquetted steel turnings – The turnings are to be as per analysis and density to meet user’s specifications.

Mill scale – It constitutes dark colored, ranging from blue to black, ferro-magnetic iron oxide forming on the surface of steel products during heating and working.

Billet, bloom and forge crops – It constitutes billet, bloom, axle, slab, heavy plate and heavy forge crops, containing not more than 0.05 % P (phosphorus) or S (sulphur) and not more than 0.5 % Si. It is to be free from alloys. The dimensions are not less than 50 mm in thickness, not above 450 mm in width, and not above 900 mm in length.

Bar crops and plate scrap – It constitutes bar crops, plate scrap, forgings, bits, jars, and tool joints, containing not more than 0.05 % P or S each, and not more than 0.5 % Si. It is to be free from alloys. The dimensions are not less than 10 mm in thickness, not above 450 mm in width, and not above 900 mm in length.

Plate and structural steel, 1500 mm and under type 1– It constitutes cut structural and plate scrap, 1500 mm and less. The scrap consists of clean steel plates, structural shapes, crop ends, shearings, or broken steel tyres. The dimen­sions are not less than 6 mm in thickness, not above 1500 mm in length and 450 mm in width. P and S contents are 0.05 % maximum each.

Plate and structural steel, 1500 mm and under type 2 – It constitutes cut structural and plate scrap, 1500 mm and less. The scrap consists of clean steel plates, structural shapes, crop ends, shearings, or broken steel tyres. The dimen­sions are not less than 6 mm thickness, not above 1500 mm in length and 600 mm in width. P and S contents are 0.05 % maximum each.

Cast steel – It constitutes steel castings not above 1200 mm in length or 450 mm in width, and 6 mm and above in thickness, containing P and S content of 0.05 % maximum each. It is to be free from alloys and attachments. It can include heads, gates, and risers.

Punchings and plate scrap – It constitutes punchings or stampings, plate scrap, and bar crops containing not more than 0.05 % P and S each and not above 0.5 % Si. It is free from alloys. All materials are cut 300 mm and less, and with the exception of punchings or stampings, at least 3 mm in thickness. Punchings or stampings can be less than 15 mm in diameter and can be of any gauge.

Electric furnace bundles – It constitutes new black steel sheet scrap hydraulically com­pressed into bundles of size and weight as specified by the user.

Cut structural and plate scrap of size 900 mm and less – It constitutes clean steel plates, structural shapes, crop ends, shearings, or broken steel tyres. The dimen­sions are not less than 6 mm in thickness, not above 900 mm in length and 450 mm in width. It has P and S content of 0.05 % maximum each.

Cut structural and plate scrap of size 600 mm and under – It is same as cut structural and plate scrap of size 900 mm and under, except for length.

Cut structural and plate scrap of size 300 mm and less – It is same as cut structural and plate scrap of size 900 mm and less, except for length.

Silicon busheling –  It constitutes clean Si bearing steel scrap, not exceeding 300 mm in any dimension, including new factory busheling (e.g., sheet clippings, stampings, etc.), having a Si content in the range of 0.05 % to 5.0 %.

Silicon clippings – It constitutes clean steel scrap, including new factory busheling (e.g. sheet clippings, stampings, etc.). It cannot include old auto body and fender stock. It is to be free of metal coated, limed, vitreous enameled and electri­cal sheet containing minimum of 1 % Si.

Chargeable ingots and ingot butts – It constitutes chargeable ingots and ingot butts for material to be suitable and acceptable to the user containing not above 0.05 % P and S each and not above 0.05 % Si, It is to be free of alloys.

Foundry steel of size 600 mm and less – It constitutes steel scrap  3 mm and above in thickness, not above 600 mm in length or 450 mm in width. Individual pieces are free from attachments. It is not to include nonferrous metals, cast or malleable iron, cable, vitreous enam­eled, or metal coated material.

Foundry steel of size 300 mm and less – This scrap has the same specifications as 600 mm size scrap, except for length.

Low residual, black foundry busheling – It constitutes 1000 series black C steel scrap, with 3 mm and above in thickness, size not more than 300 mm x 600 mm, Mn content is 0.50 % maximum. Other parameters are subject to agreement between the user and the sup­plier.

Low residual, ductile quality shredded clips – It constitutes shredded black 1000 series C steel scrap, with 3 mm and above in thickness, minimum average density of 1.2 t/cum, and Mn content 0.50 % maximum. Other parameters are subject to agreement between the user and the supplier.

Springs and crankshafts – It constitutes clean automotive springs and crankshafts, either new or used.

Alloy free turnings – It constitutes clean shoveling steel turnings free from lumps, tan­gled or matted material, iron borings, or excessive oil containing P and S contents 0.05 % maximum each. It is free of alloys.

Alloy free short shoveling steel turnings – It constitutes clean shoveling steel turnings, free of lumps, tangled or matted material, iron borings, or excessive oil, containing P and S at 0.05 % maximum each, and free of alloys.

Alloy free machine shop turnings – It constitutes clean steel turnings, free of iron borings or exces­sive oil, containing P and S at 0.05 % maximum each, and free of alloys. It cannot include badly rusted or corroded stock.

Hard steel cut 750 mm and less – It constitutes automotive steel consisting of rear ends, crank­shafts, drive shafts, front axles, springs, and gears prepared 750 mm and less. It cannot include mis­cellaneous small shoveling steel or any pieces too bulky for gray iron foundry use.

Chargeable slab crops – It constitutes chargeable slab crops for material to be suitable and acceptable to the consumer containing with P and S content 0.05 % maximum each and Si content 0.05 % maximum and free of alloys.

Silicon bundles – It contains Si sheet scrap, clippings or skeleton scrap, compressed or hand bundled, to charging box size, and with density not less than 1.2 t/cum, having a Si content of 0.50 % to 5.0 %.

Heavy turnings – It constitutes short, heavy steel turnings, containing P and S at 0.05 % each and free of alloys. It can include rail chips but cannot include machine shop or other light turnings. It has a density of not less than 1.2 t/cum in the original state of pro­duction.

Cupola cast iron grade – It constitutes clean cast iron scrap such as columns, pipes, plates, and castings of a miscellaneous nature, including automobile blocks and cast iron parts of agricultural and other machinery. It is free from stove plate, burnt iron, brake shoes or foreign material. The size is not above 600 mm x 750 mm, and no piece above 70 kgs in weight.

Charging box cast iron – It constitutes clean cast iron scrap in sizes not above 1500 mm in length or 750 mm in width. It is suitable for charging into a steelmaking furnace without further prepa­ration. It is free from burnt iron, brake shoes, or stove plate.

Heavy breakable cast – It constitutes cast iron scrap over charging box size or weighing more than 220 kgs. It can include cylinders and driving wheel centres and also can include steel which does not exceed 10 % of the casting by weight.

Hammer block or bases – It constitutes cast iron hammer blocks or bases.

Burnt iron – It constitutes burnt cast iron scrap, such as stove parts, grate bars, and miscellaneous burnt iron. It can include sash weights or window weights.

Mixed cast – It can include all grades of cast iron except burnt iron. The dimensions are not above 600 mm x 750 mm and no piece above 70 kgs in weight.

Stove plate, clean cast iron stove – The scrap is to be free from malleable and steel parts, window weights, plow points, or burnt cast iron.

Clean auto cast – It constitutes clean auto blocks and is free of all steel parts except cam­shafts, valves, valve springs, and studs. It is to be free of non­ferrous and non-metallic parts.

Unstripped motor blocks – It constitutes automobile or truck motors from which steel and nonferrous fittings may or may not have been removed. It is to be free from drive shafts and all parts of frames.

Drop broken machinery cast – It constitutes clean heavy cast iron machinery scrap which has been broken under a drop. All pieces must be of cupola size, not above 600 mm x 750 mm, and no piece above 70 kgs in weight.

Clean auto cast, broken, not degreased – It constitutes clean auto blocks, free of all steel parts except cam­shafts, valves, valve springs and studs. It is free of non­ferrous and non-metallic parts, and is to be broken to suit the melting furnace size, and every piece is 70 kgs or less.

Clean auto cast, degreased – It is free of all steel parts except cam­shafts, valves, valve springs and studs. It is free of non­ferrous and non-metallic parts, and is to be broken to suit the melting furnace size, and every piece is 70 kgs or less.

Malleable – It constitutes malleable parts of automobiles, railroad cars, loco­motives, or miscellaneous malleable iron castings. It is free from cast iron and steel parts and other foreign material.

Broken ingot moulds and stools – It constitutes broken ingot moulds and stools of cast iron with maximum size of 600 mm x 900 mm x 1500 mm.

Unbroken ingot moulds and stools – It constitutes unbroken ingot moulds and stools of cast iron.

Number 1 chemical borings – It constitutes new clean cast or malleable iron borings and drill­ings containing not more than 1 % oil, and is free from steel turnings, or chips, lumps, scale, corroded or rusty material.

Briquetted cast iron borings, hot process – It constitutes cast iron borings, heated, briquetted, to a density of around 85 % and with oil and water content less than 1 %.

Briquetted cast iron borings, cold process – It constitutes cast iron boring briquettes, free of steel and non­ferrous material, and is  hydraulically compressed into a cohesive solid, reasonably free of oil, and having a density of not less than 60 %.

Malleable borings – It constitutes clean malleable iron borings and drillings, free of steel turnings, scale, lumps and with excessive oil.

Number 2 chemical borings – It constitutes new clean cast or malleable iron borings and drill­ings, containing not more than 1.5 % oil, and free from steel turnings, or chips, lumps, scale, corroded or rusty material.

Steel from scrap tyres – The general guidelines include that items not covered in the specifications, and any variations in the specification, are subject to special arrangement between buyer and seller. Percentages are by weight. As regards preparation, consumer and supplier are to agree upon preparation for trans­port, such as the following.

  • Loose – Whole tyre.
  • Loose – Chopped tyres. If wire is chopped or shredded, parties may wish to specify the means of processing and/or charac­teristics of the final product (density, length of pieces, etc.).
  • Baled – Bales of wire are to maintain their form during load­ing, shipment, unloading, storage, and handling typical of that done at a consuming facility, unless otherwise specified.
  • Baled- Baled to high density by compressing hydraulically with no dimension larger than 600 mm, density of at least 1.2 t/cum.
  • Baled – Bales of low density with density of less than 1.2 t/cum. Each bale is secured with suf­ficient number of bale ties drawn tight to insure a satis­factory delivery.

For other means of preparation, individual specifications are to be agreed upon between consumer and supplier.

Pulled bead wire (truck), grade 1 – It is not chopped and is made up of loops of wire. It has less than 5 % of rubber/fiber.

Pulled bead wire (truck), grade 2 – It is not chopped and is made up of loops of wire. It has 5 % to 10 % of rubber/fiber.

Pulled bead wire (truck), grade 3 – It is not chopped and is made up of loops of wire. It has more than 10 % of rubber/fiber.

Pulled bead wire (passenger), grade 1 – It is not chopped and is made up of loops of wire. It has less than 5 % of rubber/fiber.

Pulled bead wire (passenger), grade 2 – It is not chopped and is made up of loops of wire. It has 5 % to 10 % of rubber/fiber.

Pulled bead wire (passenger), grade 3 – It is not chopped and is made up of loops of wire. It has more than 10 % of rubber/fiber.

Processed tyre wire (ferrous), grade 1 – It is chopped with less than 2 % of rubber/fiber.

Processed tyre wire (ferrous), grade 2 – It is chopped with less than 5 % of rubber/fiber.

Processed tyre wire (ferrous), grade 3 – It is chopped with 5 % to 10 % of rubber/fiber.

Processed tyre wire (ferrous), grade 4 – It is chopped with 10 % to 20 % of rubber/fiber.

Processed tyre wire (ferrous), grade 5 – It is chopped with more than 20 % of rubber/fiber.

Railroad ferrous scrap – The scrap is described under following headings.

Axles, steel type 1 – It constitutes solid car and/or locomotive with friction bearing, 200 mm diameter and under and free of axles with key-way between wheel seats and no axles of shorter lengths than distance between wheel seats are to be included.

Axles, steel type 2 – It constitutes solid car and/or locomotive with friction bearing, above 200 mm in diameter and free of axles with key-way between wheel seats and no axles of shorter length than distance between wheel seats are to be included.

Axles, steel type 3 – It is with roller bearing 200 mm diameter and under and no axles of shorter lengths than distance between wheel seats are to be included.

Axles, steel type 4 – It is with roller bearing over 200 mm diameter and no axles of shorter length than distance between wheel seats to be included.

Spikes, track Bolts and nuts, and lock washers, and can include rail anchors.

Tie plates of steel

Rail joints, angle and/or splice bars of steel

Bolsters and/or truck sides and frames – They are in uncut condition.

Cast steel, number 2 – It constitutes steel castings, above 450 mm wide and/or above 1500 mm long.

Cast steel, number 1 – It constitutes steel castings, 450 mm and less in width, and not above 1500 mm long, including cut truck side frames and bolsters.

Cast iron, number 1 – It constitutes cast iron scrap, such as columns, pipes, plates, and/or castings of miscellaneous nature, but free from stove plates, brake shoes, and burnt scrap. It is to be of melting furnace size, not above 600 mm x 750 mm in dimension and no piece to weigh above 70 kgs. It is to be free from foreign material.

Cast iron, number 2 – It constitutes pieces weighing above 70 kgs, but not more than 230 kgs. It is to be free from burnt casting.

Cast iron, number 3 – It constitutes pieces weighing above 230 kgs and includes cylin­ders, driving wheel centres and/or all other castings. It is free from hammer blocks or bases.

Cast iron, number 4 – It constitutes burnt cast iron scrap, such as grate bars, stove parts and/or miscellaneous burnt scrap.

Cast iron brake shoes – It includes brakes shoes of all types except composition-filled shoes.

Couplers and/or knuckles – It includes railroad car and/or locomotive steel couplers, knuckles and/or locks stripped clean of all other attachments.

Frogs and/or switches, uncut – It constitutes steel frogs and switches which have not been cut apart, exclusive of Mn.

Rail bound Mn frogs and switch points – They are with Mn inserts which have not been cut apart.

Malleable – It constitutes malleable parts of automobiles, railroad cars, loco­motive and/or miscellaneous malleable castings.

Melting steel, railroad number 1 – It constitutes clean wrought iron or steel scrap, 6 mm and above in thickness, not above 450 mm in width, and not above 1500 mm in length. It can include pipe ends and materials 3 mm to 6 mm in thickness, not above 380 mm x 380 mm with individual pieces cut so as to lie reason­ably flat in charging box.

Rail, steel number 1 – It constitutes standard section tee rails, original weight 25 kgs per meter or heavier, 3 m long and above and suitable for rerolling into bars and shapes. It is to be free from bent and twisted rails, frog, switch, and guard rails, or rails with split heads and broken flanges. Continuous welded rail can be included provided no weld is over 230 mm from the end of the piece of rail.

Rail, steel number 2, cropped rail ends – It constitutes standard section, original weight of 25 kgs per meter and above, 450 mm long and less.

Rail, steel number 2, cropped rail ends – It constitutes standard section, original weight of 25 kgs per meter and above, 600 mm long and less.

Rail, steel number 2, cropped rail ends It constitutes standard section, original weight of 25 kgs per meter and above, 900 mm long and less.

Rail, steel number 3 – It constitutes standard section tee, girder, and/or guard rails, which are to be free from frog and switch rails not cut apart, and contain no Mn, cast, welds, or attachments of any kind except angle bars. It is to be free from concrete, dirt, and foreign material of any kind.

Sheet scrap, number 1 – It constitutes less than 5 mm thick, and can include hoops, band iron and/or steel, scoops and/or shovels (free of wood). It is to be free from burnt or metal coated material, cushion, or other similar springs.

Sheet scrap, number 2 – It constitutes galvanized or tinned material and/or gas retorts, and/or any other iron or steel material not otherwise classified.

Steel, tool – The offered scrap is to be specified.

Steel, manganese – It constitutes all kinds of Mn steels, rail, guard rails, frogs and/or switch points, cut or uncut.

Steel, spring – It constitutes coil and/or elliptical, minimum thickness 6 mm, It can be assembled or cut apart.

Steel, spring, coils only

Structural, wrought iron and/or steel uncut – It constitutes all steel or steel mixed with iron from bridges, structures and/or equipment which has not been cut apart. It can include uncut bolsters, brake beams, steel trucks, under frames, channel bars, steel bridge plates, frog and/or crossing plates and/or other steel of similar character.

Tyres – It constitutes all locomotive, not cut to specified lengths.

Turnings number 1 – It constitutes heavy turnings from wrought iron and/or steel railroad axles or heavy forgings and/or rail chips, to weigh not less than 1.2 t/cum. It is to be free from dirt or other foreign material of any kind. Alloy steel scrap can be excluded from these specifica­tions by mutual agreement between buyer and seller.

Turnings, drillings and/or borings, number 2 – It constitutes cast, wrought, steel and/or malleable iron borings, turnings and/or drillings mixed with other metals.

Wheels, number 1 – It constitutes cast iron car wheels.

Wheels, number 3 – It constitutes solid cast steel, forged, pressed and/or rolled steel car and/or locomotive wheels, not above 1050 mm in diameter. The kind of offering is to be specified.

Destroyed steel cars – It constitutes bodies of steel cars cut apart sufficiently to load. The kind of offering is to be specified.

Destroyed steel car sides and box car roofs – It constitutes cut to a maximum length of… and a maximum width of… suitable for use in super presses and shears without additional preparation.

 

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