Glossary of Terms used for Safety Management in a Steel Plant
Glossary of Terms used for Safety Management in a Steel Plant
The glossary of terms normally used for safety management in a steel plant is given below.
Accident – An unplanned event that results in harm to people, damage to property or loss to process.
Accident causation – The many factors that act together to cause accidents. They include (i) personal factors, (ii) job factors, and (iii) factors related to lack of management control.
Accident investigation – The process of systematically gathering and analyzing information about an accident.
Accident prevention – The systematic application of recognized principles to reduce incidents, accidents, or the accident potential of a system or organization.
Confined space – It is an area which is not designed for continuous human occupancy and has limited opening for entry, exit and ventilation.
Contract employee (Contractor) – An individual supplied by an external company (contractor, sub contractor, consultant or vendor) on a full or part time basis and who is providing a service (production, maintenance, or administrative support) to the organization. The contractor safety, health and well being are primarily supervised by the external contractor’s supervisor or manager. He is paid by the external company directly. The external company presents an invoice for the contract for service to the organization.
Controls – These are measures designed to eliminate or reduce hazards or hazardous exposures.
Emergency plan – It is detailed procedures for responding to an emergency such as fire, explosion, chemical spill or an uncontrolled release of gas or energy. Emergency plan minimizes the effects of a disaster.
Employee (Company employee) – Employee is a person who is on the payroll of the organization. He has an employee number that identifies the person as an employee of the organization and who is directly supervised by a representative of the organization. Temporary or agency workers hired directly by the organization are to be considered as employees if the organization has primary responsibility for supervising their activities.
Fatal injury – Industrial accident resulting in a fatal injury to either the organization’s employees, contractor’s employee undertaking work for the organization or other persons where these result from an industrial accident arising from the organization’s activities. Death is to be certified by a medical professional. Fatality does not include fatalities involving voluntary social activities even if they are sponsored by the organization.
Fatality – It is the death resulting from an accident.
Fatality frequency rate (FFR) – It is calculated on the number of fatalities per million man hours.
Fire fighting – Fire is one of the major hazards present in a steel plant. A well planned fire fighting system is necessary for combating the fires.
First aid – It is the immediate care given to a person who is injured.
Frequency rate – Data on injuries (lost time and/or the total number) is often presented in terms of frequencies by relating the absolute numbers to the total number of hours worked. A base of one million (1,000,000) hours is most common.
Guarding – It is use of any device or combination of devices designed to keep any part of a worker’s body out of danger zone of a machine during its operating cycle.
HAZAN – It is hazard analysis and covers a range of techniques which are used to analyze hazards. HAZAN includes analyzing the consequences of hazards and the safeguards for hazard prevention/or mitigation.
Hazard – It is the potential of any machine, equipment, process, material or physical factor that may cause harm to people, or damage to property or the environment.
HAZOP – HAZOP is a hazard and operability study It is a structured and systematic examination of a planned or existing process or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient operation.
Hours worked – For the organization employees, it is the total number of hours worked including overtime and training during the period. For contractor employees, it is the total number of hours worked on organization premises during the period.
Housekeeping – It is a way of controlling hazards along the path between the source and the worker. Good housekeeping means having no unnecessary items in the workplace and keeping all necessary items in their proper places.
Human error – It is the term used today to include not just worker’s error, but also engineering deficiency and lack of adequate organizational control which together account for a accident.
Incident – It is an unwanted event which, in different circumstances, could have resulted in harm to people, damage to property or loss to a process.
Industrial accident –An unintended event due to an unsafe act or unsafe condition or a combination of both, which may or may not result in property damage, personal injury, work interruption, product damage or a combination of these.
Industrial injury – An injury arising from an industrial accident that occurs whilst a person is working for the organization or on the organization’s premises for purposes in connection with or arising out of and in the course of his work, but which may not necessarily result in absence from work.
Injury analysis – It is the process of systematically evaluating injury statistics to identify trends.
Legal requirement – Anything that is demanded of a person or organization by statute, regulation, common law, or by-law.
Loss time injury – An industrial injury causing loss of time from the job on which the injured person in normally employed beyond the day or shift on which the injury occurred. In addition, cases where loss of time does not immediately follow the injury, but where there is a direct relation between absence and injury, are regarded as lost time injuries.
Lost time injuries (LTI) – It is any work related injury, resulting in the organization, contractor or third party contractor employee not being able to return to work for their next scheduled work period. Returning to work with work restrictions does not constitute a lost time injury status, no matter how minimal or severe the restrictions, provided it is the employee’s next scheduled shift
Lost time injury frequency rate (LTIFR) – It is calculated as number of lost time injuries per million man hours.
Major injuries – This term is no more used internationally. The definition of the term varies widely from organization to organization. For example length of absence can range from 45 to 90 days, (ii) hospitalization, and (iii) medical definition either by own medical staff or by legislation.
Material safety data sheet (MSDS) – It is a form that contains detailed information about the possible safety and health hazards of a product and how to safely store, use and handle the product.
Minor injury – It is the injury other than a fatality or a lost time injury or MTI that is treated by first aid or minor manipulation to provide relief for a strain or bruise. A minor injury does not require treatment by a professionally trained paramedic or physician and does not incur loss of work time other than time of shift on which it occurred. The injured person continues with his normal scheduled work.
Minor treatment injury (MTI) – It is injury other than a fatality or lost time injury, which is treated by a paramedic or a physician without loss of work time other than time of the shift on which it occurred, and the injured person continues with his normal scheduled work.
Near miss incident – An incident that physically occurred but there was no personal injury to the employee, contractor or visitor bur which could have resulted in a serious injury and needs to be followed up in the same way as a lost time injury but recorded as a near miss.
Occupational health – The term is used to describe health effects because of work environment. It is used to prevent harmful health effects because of the work environment and to ensure physical, mental, and emotional well being of the employees.
OHSAS – It is occupational health and safety assessment series of standards for health and safety management system. OHSAS 18001 is the standard for which an organization can get certification. This standard is intended to help an organization to control occupational health and safety risks.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) – These are devices worn by an employee to protect against hazards. Some examples are respirators, dust mask, safety helmet, gloves, ear plugs, safety goggles and safety shoes etc.
Pyramid of incidents – A typical pyramid of incidents is shown in the Fig 1. It is also known as iceberg of incidents.
Fig 1 Typical pyramid of incidents
Risk – It is the probability of a worker suffering an injury or health problem, or damage occurring to property or the environment as a result of exposure to or contact with a hazard.
Safety – It consists of the maintenance of a work environment that is relatively free from actual or potential hazards that can injure employees.
Safety audits – Safety audit is a systematic and structured process of independent examination to determine the effectiveness of safety management system in the organization.
Safety and health organization – It is the organization in the steel plant which promotes safety and health in the plant and deals with all the issue related to it. The organization consists of a safety departments, safety committees, shop safety coordinators and occupational health or first aid centres.
Safety and health policy – It is a policy of statement of intent, and a commitment to plan for coordinated management action towards organization’s safety and health objectives.
Safety deviation – It is an action that may endanger a person or people working around him or any situation judged as being such that, sooner or later, it may lead to a risk of an incident inflicting harm to one or more persons.
Safety inspection – It is a regular and careful check of a work place in order to identify safety and health hazards and to recommend corrective actions.
Safety training and safety education – It is structured training programs meant for the training of employees regarding various aspects of safety and occupational health
Severity rate – It is thousands times the total number of days lost divided by the total number of hours worked. Values for severity rates are correlated to frequency on lost time injury frequency (LTIF). For example, if the average number of lost days for all lost time injuries remains constant for a certain period then the severity rate is directly proportional to the LTIF. So, for evaluating severity rates, one should always consider the change in LTIF before conclusions are drawn.
Toxic substance – It is a harmful or poisonous substance that can cause acute or chronic effects to a person.
Visitor – Anyone on the organization premises other than a employee of the organization or contractor. Injuries to a visitor will be included as an organization employee since the organization has the duty of care and direct safety supervision. Hours visited can be added to the calculation for frequency purposes.
Work related injury (WRI) – It is a work place injury that is the direct result of ‘work related’ activities for which management control are, or should have been in place, or those occurring during business travel.
Work related injury frequency rate (WRIFR) – It is calculated as number of injuries per million man hours.